Introduction of Natural beauty In Sundarban Westbengal.
The Sundarbans are the world’s biggest mangrove forest, consisting of a cluster of islands with a diverse and rich natural resource network and linked by a network of rivers and canals. The Sundarbans are a unique habitat and ecosystem that has been recognized internationally for its importance in terms of biodiversity and resources. The Sundarbans are home to a diverse range of vital flora and wildlife, both in terms of quantity and diversity, that are both domestically and globally endangered. The presence of the Royal Bengal Tiger, estuarine crocodiles, a variety of dolphins, reptiles, and a number of extremely endangered birds and species has given the Sundarbans a great deal of importance to eco-tourism.
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In 1869, the first forest management division with control over the Sundarbans was formed. The Forest Act of 1865 designated a major portion of the mangrove woods as restricted forests in 1875. (Act VIII of 1865). The following year, the remaining areas of the forests were designated as reserve forests, and the forest, which had previously been governed by the civil administration district, was turned over to the Forest Department. In 1879, a forest division was established as the fundamental unit for forest management and administration, with its headquarters in Khulna, Bangladesh. For the years 1893–1898, the first management plan was created.
So was classified as a tract of unexamined waste country in 1911, and it was left out of the census. It was then 266 kilometres (165 miles) long, stretching from the Hugli River’s mouth to the Meghna River’s mouth, and was bounded on the inland by the three settled districts of the 24 parganas, Khulna and Bakerganj. It was believed that the overall area (including water) was 16,900 square kilometres (6,526 sq mi). It was a swampy forest teeming with tigers and other wild animals. Attempts to reclaim the land had failed miserably. River channels and creeks cut through the Sundarbans, some of which provided water transportation throughout the Bengal region for both steamers and native watercraft. Bangladesh is home to the majority of the delta.
The Sundarban National Park is situated between the latitudes of 21° 432′ and 21° 55′ N and the longitudes of 88° 42′ and 89° 04′ E. The park is 7.5 metres above sea level on average. The park is made up of 54 tiny islands and is crossed by various Ganges river distributaries.
Sundarban Eco-geography, rivers and watercourses
At this estuary delta, a network of channels is formed by seven main rivers and other watercourses. All of the rivers flow southward toward the sea. The eco-geography of this region is completely reliant on the tidal action of two flow tides and two ebb tides that occur every 24 hours, with a tidal range of 3–5 m and up to 8 m in normal spring tide, inundating the entire Sundarban in varied depths.
The tidal motion deposits silts back into the channels, elevating the bed and forming new islands and streams, all of which contribute to the geomorphology being unpredictable. In the Bay of Bengal, between 21°00′ and 21°22′ latitude, there is a large natural depression known as the Swatch of No Ground, where the sea depth abruptly changes from 20 m to 500 m. This enigmatic depression drives the silts to the south and/or east, forming new islands.
Sunderban Tiger Reserve
The Sunderban Tiger Reserve is located in the South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India, and covers a total area of 2585 km2, with populated areas covering 1437.4 km2 and forest covering the remaining 1474 km2. In Bangladesh, the Sunderban landscape is adjacent to the mangrove ecosystem.
The Sunderban mangroves are part of India’s largest mangrove system, containing a tiger population in a unique biological context. Saltwater crocodiles, estuary and marine turtles, and a variety of bird species can all be found in these woodlands. Fishing cats, spotted deer, rhesus monkeys, and wild pigs can all be found in the reserve.
The Sunderban is cut off from the rest of the tiger-infested mainlands by a dense forest. As a result, forest resources are under a lot of biotic strain. Locals collect an average of 50 metric tonnes of honey and 3 metric tonnes of wax each year under licence from the Indian Forest Service. Many thin tidal waterways cut through the environment, generating small to big islands. These islands are frequented by tigers, and human-tiger encounters are common.
Due to the unique habitat and obliteration of evidence due to high and low tides, the assessment of tiger population in Sunderban as part of the all-India tiger estimation using the revised technique was not possible. Phase I data collection is complete, and tiger estimating is underway utilising a combination of radio telemetry and the rate of pugmark deposition from known tigers.
Damage from Cyclone Aila
On May 25, 2009, Cyclone Aila hit Sunderban, causing damage to field camps and settlements on the reserve’s outskirts. Large-scale flooding has resulted from breaches in the embankments on the village side, stranding thousands of people in the area. For almost seven hours, the field camps were submerged in 12 to 15 feet of water, causing soil erosion and damage to staff quarters, generators, and bamboo pilling. A tiger wandering inside an abandoned cattle shed in a village was captured and released back into the wild, according to reports. Apart from the deaths of two spotted deer, no tiger deaths have been documented. Several non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have helped in the relief effort.
A committee has been created by the State Forest Department to investigate the damage, which is believed to be worth about Rs. 11150,000. Under Project Tiger, the state has received Rs. 10 million in central funds to assist in the restoration of infrastructure that has been damaged.
Damage from Cyclone Amphan
On the 20th of May 2020, Cyclone Amphan made landfall near Sagar Island in the South 24 Parganas district. It has resulted in the loss of lives and the destruction of infrastructure. The cyclone wrecked “almost the whole nylon fencing” in the forest, which keeps tigers out of the forest-fringe communities and therefore keeps man-animal conflict at bay. The hurricane also destroyed “dozens of forest camp offices, tents, watch towers, and staff apartments” in addition to the fencing. The West Bengal Forest Department was initially concerned that the cyclone would hurt or kill tigers, however post-cyclone patrolling discovered no dead tigers and instead provided glimpses of the animals wandering the forest.
The Sunderban Tiger Reserve faces a number of issues in the future. Human-tiger conflict continues to be a problem due to stray tigers. Tigers in the Sunderban hunt humans, and over a thousand locals are thought to have been slain by tigers in the last four decades. The revised method has not yet been used to estimate the number of tigers present in the reserve. A tiger conservation strategy, as well as constitutions for the State Steering Committee, chaired by the Chief Minister, and the reserve-specific Tiger Conservation Foundation, are awaiting approval.
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Where to Stay In Sundarban:
Royal Sundarban Tourism
AC/Non AC Tour, AC Deluxe Cottage, Delicious Menu, Experienced Tour Guide, Personal Car. 12 Regular Spots, Folk Dance, Car, Boat, Room Sanitization, AC & Non AC Package. Want to Track & See Wild Tigers? Book a Tiger Friendly Safari. Safaris can be booked through your lodge or tour operators. In Service Since 1998. Great Experience. Personalised Service.
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